Goals and non-goals


  • devices produced by Tails Cloner should boot on most UEFI-only hardware (e.g. some relevant set of Macs)

  • devices produced by Tails Cloner should boot on most hardware that only supports UEFI boot for GPT devices (e.g. ThinkPad X220)

  • Legacy BIOS boot support should be left unaffected (modulo a tiny amount of really crazy firmware bugs, probably)

  • minimal support for 32-bit UEFI boot


  • UEFI DVD boot: BIOS boot from DVD works fine on most hardware, including Macs; adding the files needed to have UEFI DVD boot work on some systems will break what currently works for others.

  • UEFI boot from hybrid ISO cat'd on a USB device: given BIOS DVD boot works generally fine, it's OK to require users to go this way and install their UEFI-capable Tails USB stick from DVD. In case one has no DVD writer, another potentially workable option is to bootstrap in Legacy BIOS boot mode from hybrid ISO cat'd on a USB device. If the firmware supports it, this can be done on the same computer; else, from another computer.

  • UEFI boot on Mac without rEFInd would be too ambitious a goal for this iteration. Besides, we think that installing rEFInd is not that crazy a requirement, considering the additional features a device installed with Tails Installed provides (namely: persistence and incremental upgrades).


Boot loaders

Tails uses:

  • GRUB (2.x) both for 64-bit and 32-bit UEFI boot
  • syslinux for legacy BIOS boot from a USB stick
  • isolinux for legacy BIOS boot from DVD

Boot device partitioning

UEFI theoretically supports the standard PC disk partition scheme (MBR), but in practice it is most often used to boot off devices with a GUID Partition Table (GPT). Add to this that GPT supports labelling partitions (as opposed to filesystem labels, that are useless for detecting an encrypted Debian Live persistent volume). This is why we have decided, back when we were implementing persistence support and a graphical USB installer in 2012, to initialize Tails boot devices with a GPT. Since then, we have made great use of this feature in for the Persistent Storage, Upgrader, and Welcome Screen.

Despite a few painful consequences we discovered along the way, all caused by buggy firmware implementations, we think that picking GPT at that point was the right choice to make. We now have the opportunity to take advantage of it even more, and to surpass the aforementioned firmware limitations, by adding UEFI support to Tails.

Boot loader installation path

During our early testing, we have discovered that some hardware does not support running a UEFI boot loader, without entries added to the NVRAM, unless it is installed in the path meant for the device's fallback UEFI boot loader (EFI/BOOT/BOOTX64.EFI). At this point, let us make three observations:

  1. It is clearly not an option for most Tails users to fiddle with efibootmgr each time they encounter such a system. This is not only impractical and tedious, but requires technical expertise that exceeds what our design goals expect from our users.

  2. Developers and researchers in the GNU/Linux distributions field have discovered many issues with how NVRAM and boot entries are managed by UEFI firmware, often resulting in non-bootable systems, and sometimes in fully bricked hardware, unless special tricks are used. We do not feel comfortable assuming that every such problem has been detected and workaround'ed to this date, and our current team lacks the expertise to tackle this problem with great confidence.

  3. Tails is designed to avoid leaving traces on the hardware being used to run it. Without further consideration, our position is to assume that adding boot entries in the computer's NVRAM directly conflicts with this design goal.

Therefore, we will not add boot entries for Tails in the NVRAM, and our only practically available choice is to install our boot loader of choice as the fallback UEFI boot loader on Tails devices.

Build-time implementation

The UEFI boot loader setup is taken care of by:

  • config/chroot_local-hooks/60-copy-syslinux-modules
  • config/binary_local-hooks/50-grub-efi
  • config/binary_local-includes/EFI/BOOT/grub/grub.cfg
  • config/binary_local-includes/EFI/debian/grub.cfg
  • config/binary_local-includes/EFI/debian/grub/splash.png

Tails Cloner

Tails Cloner creates the Tails system partition as an EFI System Partition (ESP), with the corresponding GUID.

Future work

See UEFI#future-work.